Skip to content


Art & Art History

Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations)

Friday, April 27, 2012–Saturday, June 09, 2012

View times

Artists: Polly Apfelbaum, Ali Bailey, John Baldessari, Madison Brookshire and Tashi Wada, Zachary Buchner, Tyree Callahan, Anne Collier, Jacob Dahlgren, Jose Dávila, Gaylen Gerber, Adam Grossi, Gary Hill, Rashid Johnson, Anna Kunz, Judy Ledgerwood, Iñigo Manglano-Ovalle, and Richard Mosse

Exploring color as both a formal and a social force, Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations) arrays artworks around the gallery according to a loosely organized color spectrum. Envisioned by the artist-curators as an environment—a landscape—the project is created not only from works using spectral color, but also from instances of achromatic, invisible (infared, thermal, supernatural), and variable (metallic, iridescent) color in art. Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations) reveals and embodies how artists navigate the complex interactions between colors, histories, references, and sensations.

Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations) is supported by the College of Architecture and the Arts, University of Illinois at Chicago and a grant from the Illinois Arts Council, a state agency.

Curators Biographies

Pamela Fraser HeadshotPamela Fraser is an artist, writer, and curator. She has had solo exhibitions at the Blaffer Art Museum at the University of Houston; Gahlberg Gallery, McAninch Arts Center at the College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL; Golden Gallery, Chicago; Galerie Schmidt Maczollek, Cologne; 1k Projectspace de Ekster, Amsterdam; Casey Kaplan, New York; and Galleria Il Capricorno, Venice. Fraser has participated in group shows at Galerie Bigger and Better, Vienna; the Loyola University Museum of Art, Chicago; Apex Art, New York; Feature Inc, New York; threewalls, Chicago; The Renaissance Society, Chicago; Hyde Park Art Center, Chicago; Tony Wight Gallery, Chicago; Kunz Vis Gonzalez, Chicago; Printed Matter, New York; Gavin Brown’s enterprise, New York; Exit Art, New York; Max Protetch, New York; and White Columns, New York. Fraser is a recipient of The Pollock-Krasner Foundation Grant; the College Research Grant from the College of the Arts, The Ohio State University; The Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation Award; and a fellowship from the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. From 2008 until 2011, she hosted the exhibition and event series He Said, She Said in Oak Park, IL. Fraser earned a BFA in Painting from the School of the Visual Arts, New York, and an MFA in New Genres from the University of California, Los Angeles.

John Neff Head ShotJohn Neff is an artist and writer. His sculptures, photographic images, and collages meditate on the very processes of making and transforming meaning through material contact, the experience of the body, and the mediating mechanisms of technology. Neff has had solo exhibitions at Golden Gallery, Chicago; Marjorie Wood Gallery, San Francisco; Right Window Gallery, San Francisco; Proof Gallery, Boston; Western Exhibitions, Chicago; Occasional Art, St. Paul, MN; and Suitable Gallery, Chicago. He has also participated in group shows at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; Hungryman Gallery, Chicago; the Hyde Park Art Center, Chicago; the Chicago Cultural Center; The Bower, San Antonio, TX; Donald Young Gallery, Chicago; the Philadelphia Museum of Art; Rosenwald-Wolf Gallery, the University of the Arts, Philadelphia; Location One, New York; Artists Space, New York; and College of Visual Arts, St. Paul, MN. Neff is a recipient of an Individual Artist Grant from the Artadia Fund for Art and Dialogue, as well as an Artists Fellowship Award from the Illinois Arts Council. Neff earned a BFA from the University of Wisconsin, Madison and an MFA from the University of Illinois at Chicago.


Whitney Moeller
Assistant Director
(312) 996-6114

Color: Remixed and Expanded at Gallery 400

Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations)

April 27-June 9, 2012

Manglano Ovalle Guerro Negro3

Image: Iñigo Manglano-Ovalle, Guerrero Negro, 2008, super 16mm film digitized to HD video.

April 17, 2012 – Chicago, IL — Exploring color as both a formal and a social force, Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations)
arrays artworks around the gallery according to a loosely organized color spectrum. Envisioned by artist-curators Pamela Fraser and John Neff as an environment—a landscape—the project is created not only from works using spectral color, but also from instances of achromatic, invisible (infrared, thermal, supernatural), and variable (metallic, iridescent) color in art. Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations) reveals and embodies how artists navigate the complex interactions between colors, histories, references, and sensations. The forthcoming exhibition at Gallery 400 features work by 18 artists including Polly Apfelbaum, John Baldessari, Anne Collier, Gary Hill, Gaylen Gerber, Rashid Johnson, and Judy Ledgerwood, and runs from April 27 to June 9, 2012.

The guiding metaphor of a spectral landscape, and the inclusion of atmospheric or immaterial color phenomena, positions the exhibition beyond standard ideas of color as being composed of individual colors, as in color charts. In contrast to the conventional way of seeing color as the “color chip”—an isolated, perfect specimen of pure and even hue—Spectral Landscape concentrates on zones where colors blend and/or overlap, and where colors intersect with social, political, and historical concerns. The exhibition advances approaches to color that don ’t conform easily to well-established territory, categories, or expected ways of conceptualizing color.

To this end, the exhibition features a diverse group of artists that represent a wide variety of genres and working methods. Gary Hill ’s 1994 single-channel video Remarks on Color is a large screen presentation of Ludwig Wittgenstein ’s book of the same name, which draws attention to the process of comprehension while reveling in the pleasure of beautiful concepts and sumptuous color. Richard Mosse ’s photograph of a politically charged landscape derives its intense hot pink color from a discontinued military surveillance technology called Kodak Aerochrome, a type of film with infrared capabilities. Polly Apfelbaum ’s name conjures up images of immersive floor installations filled with dazzling colors and patterns. Like much of her past work, Apfelbaum ’s works for Spectral Landscape, Miss America and Reno, represent the artist ’s connection to vernacular aesthetics and popular culture. In Iñigo Manglano-Ovalle ’s video Guerrero Negro, 2008, the flat, saturated colors of a color-correction card play against the bright salt flats at El Vizcaíno Biosphere Reserve in Mexico, and against the skin tones of various individuals. The conjunction of simple elements, different embodiments of color, makes the piece a complex reflection on the construction of color as natural, cultural, or technological. Spectral Landscape also features three new, site-specific works by Gaylen Gerber (a backdrop paper installation), Anna Kunz (an immersive environment combining everyday objects and extant lighting), and Judy Ledgerwood (a large-scale wall painting).

What these and the other artists whose work is featured in Spectral Landscape share in common is a curious, probing, and non-doctrinaire approach to the use of color. The “shared differences” of these artists return us to the metaphor and material reality of the spectrum: it is a way of organizing experience that recognizes indeterminacy rather than imposing discreet categories on fundamentally unstable phenomena. Spectral Landscape addresses and enacts some of the methods these artists have adopted in order to navigate—to chart—the complex interactions between colors, histories, references and sensations, and to locate their work within that landscape of relations.

Related Programs:

Opening Reception
Friday, April 27, 5-8pm

Color Films

Film and Video Screening
Curated by Pamela Fraser and John Neff
Wednesday, May 23, 7pm

The film and video works gathered in Color Films aren ’t just in color; they ’re about color. Like the exhibition Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations), the works are organized along a spectrum that registers changes in color, but also in expressive modality: from red to abstraction to orange to ritual to yellow to landscape and so forth. The films and videos all share an investment in locating these diverse incidents of color within lived experience. Featuring Infrared Nail Pull by Paul Dickinson, Carrie Yellow by John Kramer, Pink and White Terraces by Nova Paul, Flushing by Cheryl Donegan, and more.


Gallery 400 offers guided tours for groups of all ages. Tours are free of charge but require reservation. Please complete our online form (accessible on our website at to schedule a tour of Spectral Landscape. For more information, or to discuss the specific needs and interests of your group, please contact us at 312-996-6114 or

# # #

Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations) is supported by the College of Architecture and the Arts, University of Illinois at Chicago, and a grant from the Illinois Arts Council, a state agency.

Founded in 1983, Gallery 400 is one of the nation’s most vibrant university galleries, showcasing work at the leading edge of contemporary art, architecture, and design. The Gallery’s program of exhibitions, lectures, film and video screenings, and performances features interdisciplinary and experimental practices. Operating within the College of Architecture and the Arts at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), Gallery 400 endeavors to make the arts and its practitioners accessible to a broad spectrum of the public and to cultivate a variety of cultural and intellectual perspectives. Gallery 400 is recognized for its support of the creation of new work, the diversity of its programs and participants, and the development of experimental models for multi-disciplinary exhibition.


“A funny thing happened on the way to red, yellow, and blue”

Pamela Fraser

“Expanding the dimensionality of color.” I came across this phrase in my own notes as I sat down to summarize this exhibition. I had written it to encapsulate ideas found in two scientific essays, but in many ways it sums up what Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations) sets out to accomplish. To backtrack, let me relay what the phrase originally referred to. The sentence was meant to condense Jonathan C. Fish ’s “Colour and Sensation in Visual Art and Science,”1 and “It ’s not really red, green, yellow, blue: an inquiry into perceptual color space” by Kimberly Jameson and Roy D ’Andrade.2 Fish ’s essay provides an account of contemporary uncertainties on the number and nature of color attributes, while the Jameson and D ’Andrade paper challenges conventional optical theories and commonly utilized color models. In their contestation of customary organizations of color space, they consider notions of elemental, or primary colors, those that are irreducible and cannot be created through mixture. The writers test the widely held belief that only specific hues are primaries by challenging the concept of irreducibility as criteria, raising the possibility that any three equidistant axis points in color space could be considered primary. The clear-cut ideas in both writings quietly fracture established ideas of primary color, as well as the metaphorical values they carry.

Basic two-dimensional color models, with primary, secondary, and tertiary hues, became well known through their broad use at the influential Bauhaus, though they originate further back in a predominantly German history of science, philosophy, and education. In the United States, the field of art education has stuck to these pre-1930s models, relying on a framework for perceptual experience generally regarded as part of the past. In the meantime, other disciplines have widened the scope of the considerations, variables, and questions involved in organizing color. Ensuing color space visualizations, the charts and models used in manufacturing as well as hard and social sciences, have evolved into more complex and more mathematical constructs. While a specific German aesthetic history involving primary colors and notions of primary-ness is in the past, remnants and dialogues remain and continue. This writing scans through some of the neglected details of that history in the hope that it not be collapsed into a simplified version of itself, into the too-simple dichotomy of the formal versus the socially engaged. If we look at some of the key thinkers such as Goethe, Schopenhauer, Froebel, the Gestaltists, and those associated with the Bauhaus, and recall their actual objectives and aspirations (though sometimes quite flawed), we can recognize points of continuity, as well as of departure, in our broad artistic landscape in relation to the details of this specific history.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ’s treatise on color, Zur Farbenlehre (The Theory of Colors) (1810), is a significant text in a number of ways. Written largely as a repudiation of Newton ’s Opticks (1704), Goethe was driven by the belief that Newton had made errors in his work, including the emphasis on the existence of color outside the realm of human response. Goethe ’s emphasis on experience and on the subjective provided impetus for future fields of study that posited the primacy of the psychological and physiological in the perceptual process. His friend and peer Arthur Schopenhauer ’s use of the term “color theory” in his On Vision and Colors (1816) makes the specifics of this then-new term clear. He characterized it as a field of study that sought to comprehend and codify color with physiological, psychological, and philosophical applications. Goethe and Schopenhauer ’s relationship dissolved over their differences on these issues, with Goethe ultimately believing in an objective aspect of color, while Schopenhauer understood the experience of color to be entirely subjective, existing only within the retina.

Also in early 19th century Germany, childhood education pioneer and kindergarten creator Friedrich Froebel created his “gifts” and “occupations,” pedagogical objects meant to encourage children to discover concepts of unity and harmony. These objects emphasized the importance of learning though play and tactile experience, via direct interaction with varieties of material qualities (textures, shapes, and colors) in fundamental forms. Froebel ’s research exerted a strong influence on German intellectual culture, including the specific theory of harmony associated with Modernism. Indeed, the gifts forecast many of the artistic aims, materials, and color use (red/yellow/blue) of Modernist philosophy across Europe almost a century later.

Similarly, the impact of the school of Gestalt psychology on the arts was dramatic, and its legacy is still with us, exemplified by words in general usage in the arts such as wholeness, balance, and harmony. Gestalt, which began in Germany in 1910, demonstrated a continued interest in perception as it related to psychological and spiritual development. Like much early psychology, the focus was on the study of human response, rather than on individual behavior. Founded by Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Köhler, it sought to discover holistic organizing principles of the mind and was of great interest to many artists and designers who saw their visual work as a parallel investigation. Bauhaus-hosted Gestaltist lectures, Paul Klee ’s specific interest in Wertheimer, and Josef Albers and Wassily Kandinsky ’s attendance at a series of lectures about Gestalt theory by psychologist Count Karlfried von Dürckheim, are just some of the documented interactions between the Gestaltists and artists of the era. Klee, Kandinsky, and Albers, as well as Lazlo Moholy-Nagy and Johannes Itten, all taught special courses on color that understood it to be an instinctual phenomenon whose symbolic use could be codified on universal and absolute terms.

Albers went on to become considered an authoritative teacher and artist whose life work in both areas was essentially dedicated to the elusiveness of color. Albers is widely credited with a revival of interest in “simultaneous contrast,” an effect first described in 1839 by a French chemist, Michel Eugène Chevreul, who found that the appearance of colors changes when moved from one background to another. Albers had learned about this from von Dürckheim ’s lectures, interested in the idea that “we always experience perceptual wholes, not isolated parts. We never see figures (or swatches) alone, only dynamic ‘figure-ground ’ relationships.”3 From a contemporary perspective, it seems that the idea of the dynamic whole was conceived within purely visual terms. As we look at Albers ’ work today, the isolated aspect of the studies is striking. While they were studies in the inter-relatedness of human response, they are still color swatches, without social context, as if in a laboratory.

Johannes Itten ’s work and teaching were of a mystical bent, a fact that caused some conflict at the Bauhaus, and ultimately factored into his resignation there. His books, including The Elements of Color (1970), are still fairly well read and used in American art school curricula. One has to wonder if anyone actually reads the texts or perhaps only looks at the beautiful charts he designed, since the chapter entitled “Subjective Timbre” in The Elements of Color contains a quite stunning (and silly) bit of racialist profiling. In the chapter, Itten advises that students should be taught to use color differently from one another on the basis of their complexion, how their skin and hair colors factor into their aptitudes and that they must work in ways that suit their ”constitutions”:

Light blond types with blue eyes and pink skin incline towards very pure colors, often with a great many clearly distinguished color qualities. Contrast of hue is the basic feature. Depending on the forcefulness of the individual, the colors may be more or less luminous. A very different type is represented by people with black hair, dark skin, and dark eyes, for whom black plays an important part of their harmony.

He continues:

The blond type should be assigned such subjects as Springtime, Kindergarten, Baptism, Festival of Bright Flowers, Garden at Morning. Nature subjects should be vivid, without light/dark contrasts. Good assignments for a dark type would be Night, Light in a Dark Room, Autumn Storm, Burial, Grief, The Blues, etc. Nature studies can be done in charcoal or black and white pigments.4

A Google search today for the book finds absolutely no reference to this bizarre bit of pedagogy, only links to the book as a still-current teaching tool. reader reviews are glowing, and none of this seems to be addressed anywhere in print. My own discovery of this chapter, found as a young teacher researching in a dim Northwestern University library, was my introduction to the formal and discreet study of color, that which is called color theory. Its problematic logic immediately made clear the necessity of situating the field of study of “color theory” in its very specific historical and cultural context, giving rise to the challenging prospect of re-framing the subject of color as a focus of inquiry.

In a discussion of color and culture, recent exchanges in linguistic anthropology are relevant, specifically an ongoing debate concerning color terms and color categorization. Much of this particular discussion began with a famous cross-cultural study of color naming, conducted by Brent Berlin and Paul Kay in their Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (1969). They conducted extensive multi-lingual research, asking subjects to respond to Munsell color chips. While they discovered coherent cross-cultural patterns of naming and thus argued for universal semantic uniformities, many were critical of their method.

Linguist and psychologist John A. Lucy ’s essay “The linguistics of ‘color ’”5 explores this debate, essentially between universalists and relativists, and returns us to the idea of expanding the dimensionality of color. Lucy ’s essay examines the inherent assumptions in Berlin and Kay ’s study, and points out that it presupposes that the Western three dimensions of color (hue, value, and saturation), and only these three dimensions (leaving out luminosity, luster, and reflectance), are cross-cultural denotations. In English color naming, luminosity, luster, and reflectance, as well as adjectives such as wet or dry, for instance, are modifiers to chromatic categories (a shiny red and a dull red are still red, for example). In some languages, however, chromatic differentiation is not understood in the same way. Factors that we see as adjectives that modify nouns are understood as separate entities, indicated by separate words (what we see as a wet red and a dry red would be two separate words, two separate things). Lucy also points out that the study assumes “speech is about labeling accuracy rather than ‘situational intelligibility. ’”6 This shift in the field of linguistics can be seen as analogous to the shift in art practices from Formalism to those that identify context and contingency to be instrumental to meaning, and that identify meaning as socially and historically determined. Lucy ’s essay concludes with the idea that the only way to establish what uniformities of thought actually do exist across language and culture is to recognize that “the communicatively relevant encodings of visual experience do not lie ‘in there ’ in the biology but out in the socially anchored linguistic systems.”7 This specific idea also has parallels in art practices, and in this exhibition, comprised of artists who use color through a lens informed by—but not limited to—an appreciation of the cultural and social dimensions of experience.

Ah, the exhibition. I ’ve discussed it only by proxy. Much has transpired between now and the days when pre-war German art and design had a stronghold on the use of color, when color and art were intertwined with research around perception. This would include movements certainly well documented; the use of ready-made color thoroughly explored in the Museum of Modern Art ’s exhibition Color Chart: Reinventing Color, 1950 to Today (2008), the mysticism of Barnett Newman or the phenomenology of Mark Rothko, the iridescence and effervescence of L.A. ’s Light and Space movement. It also includes noteworthy individual color investigations that don ’t fit neatly into established groups: Anne Truitt ’s inscrutable combinations, Sam Gilliam ’s stained, draped, and freed transparencies, Hélio Oiticica ’s studied liveliness, Blinky Palermo ’s humorous undermining of color as universal, and Kara Walker ’s restricted palette. David Batchelor ’s 2001 book Chromophobia, which combined cultural and literary theory to propose a culture-wide fear of color should be mentioned too, as an indication of a conceptual shift on ideas of color in art.

For Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations), John Neff and I brought together others who (like us) have recently ruminated on color, from a variety of frameworks, in a myriad of ways. In doing so, we hope to demonstrate how the rich relationship between color and aesthetics continues to expand outward, reckoning with its own past, ever intermingling with other fields of inquiry. In describing his piece Elogio de la sombra (Praise for the Shadow) (not in this exhibition), artist Jose Dávila writes “There is no primary discourse: the elements are subject to the continuous restructurings and transformations of any being that becomes generated in the shadow…What is new shall be subject to experience and not to explanations.”8 His statement captures some of the central ideas contained within Spectral Landscape: that the field of investigation is wide open; and that possibilities are not restricted by the need to participate in a singular, dominant conversation. Most significantly, it conveys the idea that while we recognize the constructs that frame experience, our recognition does not change the actuality of the occurrences and encounters that make up experience, does not change our desire to be immersed in—and endlessly surprised by—it.

1. Jonathan C. Fish, “Colour and Sensation in Visual Arts and Science,” Leonardo 14, no. 2 (1981): 89-98.
2. Kimberly Jameson and Roy D ’Andrade, “It ’s not really red, green, yellow, blue: an inquiry into perceptual color space,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, ed. C.L. Hardin and Luisa Maffi (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 295-319.
3. Roy Behrens, “Art, Design, and Gestalt Theory,” Leonardo Online 31, no. 4 (1998): 299-303. 5 April 2012.
4. Johannes Itten, The Elements of Color (Cincinatti: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1970), 24-25.
5. John A. Lucy, “The linguistics of color,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, ed. C.L. Hardin and Luisa Maffi (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 320-46.
6. Ibid, 323.
7. Ibid, 341.
8. Jose Dávila: In Praise of the Shadow. Zapopan: Museum of Art Zapopan MAZ, Mexico, 2012. Exhibition catalog. n.p.


Pamela Fraser, A funny thing happened on the way to red, yellow, and blue, April, 2012.

This essay was distributed in the gallery during the run of the exhibition.

Exhibition Checklist

Polly Apfelbaum

Miss America, 2011
Fabric, 60 x 18 x 8 in.
Courtesy the artist and D’Amelio Gallery

Ali Bailey

Spectrum, 2010
Rotated magazine advertisement, 15 x 13 in.
Courtesy the artist and Andrew Rafacz Gallery

John Baldessari

Six Colorful Tales: From the Emotional Spectrum (Women), 1977
Video, 17:10 min.
Courtesy Electronic Arts Intermix (EAI)

Madison Brookshire and Tashi Wada

Passage, 2011
Double 16mm film projection with sound, 13:00 min. loop
Courtesy the artists

Zachary Buchner

Untitled (Pink Yellow), 2010
Plaster, enamel, burlap, and plywood, 72 x 48 in.
Courtesy the artist and Andrew Rafacz Gallery

Tyree Callahan

Chromatic Typewriter, 2012
Modified 1937 Underwood Standard typewriter, pigment, resin, and oil on paper, 12 x 14 x 21 in.
Courtesy the artist

Anne Collier

Aura (John Baldessari), 2003
Dye-diffusion transfer (Polaroid) print, 4 1/4 x 3 1/2 in.
Courtesy the artist, Anton Kern Gallery, Mark Foxx Gallery, and Corvi Mora

Jacob Dahlgren

Demonstration 14th of June, 2009
Video, 30:00 min.
Courtesy the artist and Galleri Andréhn-Schiptjenko

Jose Dávila

Untitled, 2011
Ceramic tiles, 20 x 20, 15 3/4 x 15 3/4, 12 1/4 x 12 1/4, 7 3/4 x 7 3/4 in.
Courtesy the artist and Casey Kaplan Gallery

Untitled, 2011
Ceramic tiles, 20 x 20, 15 3/4 x 15 3/4, 12 1/4 x 12 1/4, 7 3/4 x 7 3/4 in.
Courtesy the artist and Casey Kaplan Gallery

Gaylen Gerber with Polly Apfelbaum, Ali Bailey, John Baldessari, Madison Brookshire and Tashi Wada, Zachary Buchner, Tyree Callahan, Anne Collier, Jacob Dahlgren, José Davila, Adam Grossi, Gary Hill, Rashid Johnson, Anna Kunz, Judy Ledgerwood, Iñigo Manglano-Ovalle, and Richard Mosse

Backdrop/Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations), 2012
Background paper, push pins, and tape on wall, 144 x 474 in.
Courtesy the artist and Wallspace

Adam Grossi

Call and Response, 2011
Acrylic on wood panel, 48 x 48 in.
Courtesy the artist

Gary Hill

Remarks on Color, 1994
Single-channel video and sound installation, 43:00 min.
Courtesy the artist and Donald Young Gallery

Rashid Johnson

Cosmic Slop #1, 2008
Wax and black soap on board, 30 x 20 in.
Courtesy Dan Berger

Anna Kunz

Outside, 2012
Latex, Plexiglas, scrim, wire, and acrylic on plywood floor panels, 130 x 40 x 53 in.
Courtesy the artist

Judy Ledgerwood

Chromatic Patterns for Gallery 400, 2012
Tempera on wall, 110 x 408 in.
Courtesy the artist and Rhona Hoffman Gallery

Iñigo Manglano-Ovalle

Guerrero Negro, 2008
Super 16mm film digitized to HD video, loop
Edition of five
Courtesy the artist and Donald Young Gallery

Richard Mosse

Taking Tiger Mountain, 2011
Digital C-print, 74 x 92 in.
Edition one of two
Courtesy Nick Cave

Ciezadlo, Janina. “Review: Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations)/Gallery 400.” Newcity, May 29, 2012.

Pearson, Laura. “Spectral Landscape with Viewing Stations at Gallery 400 | Art review.” TimeOut Chicago, May 31, 2012.

Westin, Monica. “Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations), Editor Pick.”, accessed May 31, 2012.


Postcard: Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations) – Opening Reception

Poster: Spectral Landscape (with Viewing Stations)